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In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian Plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. The height of this urban development was reached in the Middle Bronze Age c.
Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire and especially during the Iranic Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it. The Hittite Empire was established in Hattusa in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BC.
Cultures in the ancient Near East (often called one of "the cradles of civilization") practiced intensive year-round agriculture, developed a writing system, invented the potter's wheel, created a centralized government, written law codes, city and nation states, empires, embarked on advanced architectural projects, introduced social stratification, economic and civil administration, slavery, and practiced organized warfare, medicine and religion.
Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy, mathematics and astrology.
The Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role in later Assyrian and Babylonian culture, even though Babylonia (unlike the more militarily powerful Assyria) itself was founded by non-native Amorites and often ruled by other non-indigenous peoples, such as Kassites, Arameans and Chaldeans, as well as its Assyrian neighbours.
Elam was a pre-Iranic ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia.
Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques.Arzawa in Western Anatolia during the second half of the second millennium BC likely extended along southern Anatolia in a belt that reaches from near the Turkish Lakes Region to the Aegean coast.